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Neodymium, atomic no.60, symbol as Nd, weight at 144.24
Neodymium, atomic no.: 60, symbol as Nd, weight at 144.24, is the most abundant of the rare earths after Cerium and Lanthanum. It shows similar characteristics to the other trivalent Lanthanides. Primary applications include lasers, glass coloring and tinting, dielectrics and, most importantly, as the fundamental basis for Neodymium-Iron-Boron (Nd2Fe14B) permanent magnets. Neodymium has a strong absorption band centered at 580 nm, which is very close to the human eye's maximum level of sensitivity making it useful in protective lenses for welding goggles. It is also used in CRT displays to enhance contrast between reds and greens. It is highly valued in glass manufacturing for its attractive purple coloring to glass. Neodymium is included in many formulations of barium titanate, used as dielectric coatings and in multi-layer capacitors essential to electronic equipment. Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (YAG) solid state lasers utilize neodymium because it has optimal absorption and emitting wavelengths. Nd-based YAG lasers are used in various medical applications, drilling, welding and material processing. Neodymium has an unusually large specific heat capacity at liquid-helium temperatures, so is useful in cryocoolers. Probably because of similarities to Ca2+, Nd3+ has been reported to promote plant growth. Rare earth element compounds are frequently used in China asfertilizer.
Neodymium OxideNeodymium Oxide Applied to crystal, capacitors and glass industries. Glass containing neodymium is a laser material in place of ruby to produce coherent light.
Neodymium CarbonateNeodymium Carbonate Used for glass, crystal and capacitors. Colors glass delicate shades ranging from pure violet through wine-red and warm gray.
Neodymium MetalNeodymium Metal Used in manufacturing very powerful permanent magnets, Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnets, and also applied in making specialty superalloy and sputtering targets.
Neodymium FluorideNeodymium Fluoride Used to manufacture glass, crystal and capacitors, and is the main raw material for making Neodymium Metal and alloys.